Toxic Stress: Definition, Causes, & Treatment
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Branco, M. S. S., & Linhares, M. B. M. (2018). The toxic stress and its impact on development in the Shonkoff’s Ecobiodevelopmental Theorical approach. Estudos de Psicologia, 35(1), 89–98. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-02752018000100009
Franke H. A. (2014). Toxic Stress: Effects, Prevention and Treatment. Children (Basel, Switzerland), 1(3), 390–402. https://doi.org/10.3390/children1030390
Shern, D. L., Blanch, A. K., Steverman, S. M. (2016). Toxic stress, behavioral health, and the next major era in public health. Am J Orthopsychiatry, 86(2), 109-123.
NAMI. (2017). What you should know about toxic stress. Retrieved from https://www.nami.org/Blogs/NAMI-Blog/August-2017/What-You-Should-Know-About-Toxic-Stress
The American Institute of Stress. (2022). Stress research. Retrieved from https://www.stress.org/stress-research.
Dowd, M. D. (2017). Early Adversity, Toxic Stress, and Resilience: Pediatrics for Today. Pediatr Ann., 46(7), 246-249.
Gutman, L. M. (2008). Risk and resilience. University of London, UK: Elsevier Inc, 23-33.
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Author: No Change
Reviewer: No Change
Primary Changes: Edited for readability and clarity. Reviewed and added relevant resources.
Author: Hailey Shafir, LCMHCS, LPCS, LCAS, CCS
Reviewer: Maloa Affuembey, MD