Opioid Addiction: Signs, Symptoms, & Treatments
Choosing Therapy strives to provide our readers with mental health content that is accurate and actionable. We have high standards for what can be cited within our articles. Acceptable sources include government agencies, universities and colleges, scholarly journals, industry and professional associations, and other high-integrity sources of mental health journalism. Learn more by reviewing our full editorial policy.
Opioid use disorder. (2022). Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/opioid-use-disorder
Mayo Clinic. (2020). Prescription drug abuse. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/prescription-drug-abuse/symptoms-causes/syc-20376813
Vowles, et al. (2015). Rates of opioid misuse, abuse, and addiction in chronic pain: a systematic review and data synthesis. Pain. 156(4), 569–576. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.j.pain.0000460357.01998.f1
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596
Guardia, J., et al. (2011). A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized pilot study comparing quetiapine with placebo, associated to naltrexone, in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. Addictive behaviors, 36(3), 265–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.11.006
Hazelden Betty Ford Foundation. (2019). Suboxone v. methadone v. naltrexone in opioid addiction treatment. Retrieved from https://www.hazeldenbettyford.org/articles/methadone-vs-suboxone-opioid-treatment
We regularly update the articles on ChoosingTherapy.com to ensure we continue to reflect scientific consensus on the topics we cover, to incorporate new research into our articles, and to better answer our audience’s questions. When our content undergoes a significant revision, we summarize the changes that were made and the date on which they occurred. We also record the authors and medical reviewers who contributed to previous versions of the article. Read more about our editorial policies here.
Author: No Change
Reviewer: No Change
Primary Changes: Edited for readability and clarity. Reviewed and added relevant resources. Revised “Opioid Addiction Causes & Risk Factors” and “Treatment of Opioid Addiction.” Added “Opioid Withdrawal Symptoms” and “Coping With Opioid Addiction.” New content written by Alexa Donnelly, LCSW and reviewed by Heidi Moawad, MD.