Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD): Signs, Symptoms, & Treatments
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American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596
Reactive attachment disorder. (2017). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/reactive-attachment-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20352939
Cleveland Clinic. (n.d.) Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD). Retrieved from https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/17904-reactive-attachment-disorder
Hornor, G. (2008). Reactive attachment disorder. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 22(4), 234–239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedhc.2007.07.003
- Perry, B.D., Pollard, R.A., Blakley, T.L., Baker, W.L. and Vigilante, D. (1995), Childhood trauma, the neurobiology of adaptation, and “use-dependent” development of the brain: How “states” become “traits”. Infant Ment. Health J., 16: 271-291. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0355(199524)16:4<271::AID-IMHJ2280160404>3.0.CO;2-B
Smith, M., et al (2019). Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Other Attachment Issues. Retrieved from https://www.helpguide.org/articles/parenting-family/attachment-issues-and-reactive-attachment-disorders.htm
Ellis, E.E., Yilanli, M., & Saadabadi, A. (2023). Reactive Attachment Disorder. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537155/
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Author: No Change
Reviewer: No Change
Primary Changes: Updated for readability and clarity. Reviewed and added relevant resources. Added “What Is Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD)?”, “How Common Is Reactive Attachment Disorder?”, “What Causes Reactive Attachment Disorder?”, “How Is RAD Diagnosed?”, “Complications of Reactive Attachment Disorder”. New material written by Michelle Risser, LISW-S and reviewed by Kristen Fuller, MD.
Author: Beth Tyson, MA
Reviewer: Kristen Fuller, MD