Estrangement: Definition, Causes, & What You Can Do
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American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Estrangement. APA Dictionary of Psychology. Retrieved from https://dictionary.apa.org/estrangement
Blake, L. (n.d.). Hidden voices: Family estrangement in adulthood. StandAlone and University of Cambridge Centre for Family Research. Retrieved from https://www.standalone.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/HiddenVoices.FinalReport.pdf
Scharp, K.M. (2017). “You’re not welcome here”: A grounded theory of family distancing. Communication Research, 46(4). Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317805625_You’re_Not_Welcome_Here_A_Grounded_Theory_of_Family_Distancing
Karl, P.(2020) Fault Lines: Fractured Families and How to Mend Them. New York: Avery.
Conti, R. (2015). Family estrangement: Establishing a prevalence rate. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science, 3(2): 28-35. Retrieved from http://jpbsnet.com/journals/jpbs/Vol_3_No_2_December_2015/4.pdf
Coleman, J. (2014). Family estrangement: advice and information for adult children. StandAlone. Retrieved from https://www.standalone.org.uk/guides/adultchildren/
Reczek, R., Stacey, L., & Thomeer, M. B. (2023). Parent-Adult Child Estrangement in the United States by Gender, Race/ethnicity, and Sexuality. Journal of marriage and the family, 85(2), 494–517. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12898
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Author: No Change
Reviewer: No Change
Primary Changes: Edited for readability and clarity. Reviewed and added relevant resources. Revised “Signs of Estrangement” and “How Common Is Family Estrangement.” Added “What Causes Family Estrangement” and “How to Recover From Estrangement.” New material written by Heather Rose Artushin, LISW-CP and reviewed by Kristen Fuller, MD.
Author: Tanya Peterson, NCC, DAIS
Reviewer: Naveed Saleh, MD, MS