Inferiority Complex: Definition, Symptoms, & Treatments
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American Psychological Association. (n.d.). APA Dictionary of Psychology – Inferiority Complex. Retrieved from https://dictionary.apa.org/inferiority-complex
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA.
American Psychological Association. (n.d.). APA Dictionary of Psychology – Superiority Complex. Retrieved from https://dictionary.apa.org/inferiority-complex
Hirao K. (2014). Comparison of Feelings of Inferiority among University Students with Autotelic, Average, and Nonautotelic Personalities. North American Journal of Medical Sciences. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4193149/.
Better Health Channel. (2014, August 21). Self-Esteem. Retrieved from https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/self-esteem.
National Institute of Mental Health. (July 2018). Anxiety Disorders. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/index.shtml.
Scarf, Maggie. (1921, February 28). The Man Who Gave Us ‘Inferiority Complex,’ ‘Compensation,’ ‘Overcompensation,’ ‘Aggressive Drive’ And ‘Style of Life.” New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/1971/02/28/archives/the-man-who-gave-us-inferiority-complex-compensation.html
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Author: No Change
Reviewer: No Change
Primary Changes: Updated for readability and clarity. Reviewed and added relevant resources. Added “How Long Do Feelings of Inferiority Last?”, revised “Complications of an Inferiority Complex” and “How to Overcome Feelings of Inferiority”. New material written by Silvi Saxena, MBA, MSW, LSW, CCTP, OSW-C and reviewed by Kristen Fuller, MD.
Author: Eric Patterson, LPC
Reviewer: Naveed Saleh, MD, MS