Defense Mechanisms: Definition, Types, & Examples
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Bailey, R, & Pico, J. (2023). Defense Mechanisms. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559106/
American Psychiatric Association. (2018) What are dissociative disorders? Retrieved from: www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/dissociative-disorders/what-are-dissociative-disorder
Cramer, P. (2015). Understanding defense mechanisms. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284184605_Understanding_Defense_Mechanisms
National Institute of Health. (2021). Defense mechanisms. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559106/
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Author: No Change
Reviewer: No Change
Primary Changes: Edited for readability and clarity. Reviewed and added relevant resources. Revised “Common Defense Mechanisms” and “Coping With Unhealthy Defense Mechanisms.” Added “What Are Defense Mechanisms,” “Can Defense Mechanisms Be Healthy,” and “When to Seek Professional Help.” New material written by Nicole Artz, LMFT and reviewed by Kristen Fuller, MD.
Author: Dianne Grande, PhD
Reviewer: Naveed Saleh, MD, MS