Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatment
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National Center for PTSD (2020). Retrieved from: https://www.ptsd.va.gov/
Porges S. W. (2009). The polyvagal theory: New insights into adaptive reactions of the autonomic nervous system. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 76 (2), 86–90. https://doi.org/10.3949/ccjm.76.s2.17
Watkins, L. E., Sprang, K. R., & Rothbaum, B. O. (n.d.). Treating PTSD: A Review of Evidence-Based Psychotherapy Interventions. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 12.
PTSD: Decision Aid. (March, 2020). Retrieved from: https://www.ptsd.va.gov/apps/decisionaid/
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. (2019, May). Retrieved from:
Livingston, N. A., Berke, D., Scholl, J., Ruben, M., & Shipherd, J. C. (2020, March 16). Addressing Diversity in PTSD Treatment: Clinical Considerations and Guidance for the Treatment of PTSD in LGBTQ Populations. Current Treatment options in Psychiatry. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223966/
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Author: No Change
Reviewer: No Change
Primary Changes: Updated for readability and clarity. Reviewed and added relevant resources. Added “What Is PTSD?”, “Signs of PTSD to Watch For”, “What Causes PTSD?”, “Types of PTSD”, “Outlook for Those With PTSD”, “Can PTSD Be Prevented?”, and “Living With Someone Who Has PTSD”. New material written by Eric Patterson, LPC, and reviewed by Kristen Fuller, MD.
Author: Dakota King-White, PhD, LPC & Layla Kurt, PhD, LPC
Reviewer: Benjamin Troy, MD