Permissive Parenting: Definition, Characteristics, & Effectiveness
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Trautner, T. (2017, January). Permissive parenting style. Michigan State University Extension. Retrieved from: https://www.canr.msu.edu/news/permissive_parenting_style
Kuppens, S., & Ceulemans, E. (2019). Parenting styles: A closer look at a well-known concept. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28(1), 168–181.
Ishak, Z., Low, S. F., & Lau, P. L. (2012). Parenting style as a moderator for students’ academic achievement. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 21(4), 487-493.
Hinnant, Benjamin J. Erath, Stephen A., Kelly, M. Tu., El-Sheik, Mona. (2016) Permissive Parenting, Deviant Peer Affiliations, and Delinquent Behavior in Adolescence: The Moderating Role of Sympathetic Nervous System Reactivity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(6): 1071-1081. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4909613/
Milevsky, A., Schlechter, M., Netter, S., & Keehn, D. (2007). Maternal and paternal parenting styles in adolescents: Associations with self-esteem, depression and life-satisfaction. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16(1), 39-47.
Thomas, R., Abell, B., Webb, H. J., Avdagic, E., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2017). Parent-child interaction therapy: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 140(3).
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Author: No Change
Reviewer: No Change
Primary Changes: Updated for readability and clarity. Reviewed and added relevant resources. Added “Negative Effects of Permissive Parenting”, “Positive Effects of Permissive Parenting”, “Permissive Vs. Other Parenting Styles”. New material written by Iris Waichler, MSW, LCSW and reviewed by Kristen Fuller, MD.
Author: Emily Guarnotta, PsyD
Reviewer: Benjamin Troy, MD