Betrayal Trauma: Signs, Recovery & Getting Help
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Freyd, J. J. (2008). The Encyclopedia of Psychological Trauma (G. Reyes, J. D. Elhai, & J. D. Ford, Eds.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Freyd, J. J. (2020, June 23). What is a Betrayal Trauma? What is Betrayal Trauma Theory? Retrieved from https://dynamic.uoregon.edu/jjf/defineBT.html
Goldsmith, R. E., Freyd, J. J., & DePrince, A. P. (2012). Betrayal Trauma: Associations With Psychological and Physical Symptoms in Young Adults. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(3), 547-567. PubMed. 10.1177/0886260511421672
van der Kolk, B. A. (2014). The body keeps the score: Brain, mind, and body in the healing of trauma. Viking.
Freyd, J. J., & Birrell, P. J. (2013). Blind to Betrayal: Why We Fool Ourselves We Aren’t Being Fooled. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Originally Published: March 10, 2021
Original Author: Rachel Larson, LMHC, CAMS-I, CPTT-Candidate
Original Reviewer: Kristen Fuller, MD
Updated: October 7, 2022
Author: No Change
Reviewer: No Change
Primary Changes: Updated for readability and clarity. Reviewed and added relevant resources.