What Are Attachment Styles & How Do They Influence Adult Behavior?
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Ainsworth MDS, Blehar MC, Waters E, Wall S. (1978). Patterns of attachment. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent–child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.
Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., & Rodriguez, M. I. (1989). Delay of gratification in children. Science, 244(4907), 933-938.
Brennan, K.; Clark, C.; Shaver, P. (1998). Self-report measures of adult romantic attachment. In J. Simpson and W. Rholes, Attachment theory and close relationships. New York: Guilford Press.
Watkins, Christopher Daniel, “Convergence versus divergence of social and developmental measures of adult attachment: Testing Jay Belsky’s proposals.” PhD diss., University of Tennessee, 2016. https://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_graddiss/397
Horvath, A. O., & Symonds, B. D. (1991). Relation between working alliance and outcome in psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(2), 139–149. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-022.214.171.124
Safran, J. D., Muran, J. C., & Eubanks-Carter, C. (2011). Repairing alliance ruptures. Psychotherapy, 48(1), 80.
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Author: No Change
Reviewer: No Change
Primary Changes: Updated for readability and clarity. Reviewed and added relevant resources. Added “Disorganized Attachment” and “Can You Change Your Attachment Style?”. New material written by Eric Patterson, LPC, and reviewed by Kristen Fuller, MD.
Author: Michael Kinsey, PhD
Reviewer: Naveed Saleh, MD, MS