Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): Symptoms, Causes, & Treatments
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Institute of Medicine. 1996. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://nap.nationalacademies.org/catalog/4991/fetal-alcohol-syndrome-diagnosis-epidemiology-prevention-and-treatment
Denny, C. H., et al. (2019). Consumption of alcohol beverages and binge drinking among pregnant women aged 18–44 years — United States, 2015–2017. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 68(16), 365–368. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6816a1
May, P. A., et al. (2018). Prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in 4 US communities. JAMA, 319(5), 474. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.21896
Mayo Clinic. (2018). Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – Symptoms and Causes. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/fetal-alcohol-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20352901
Wattendorf, D., & Muenke, M. (2005). Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. American Family Physician, 72(2):279-285. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0715/p279.html.
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Author: No Change
Reviewer: No Change
Primary Changes: Updated for readability and clarity. Reviewed and added relevant resources.
Author: Maggie Holland, MA, MHP, LMHC
Reviewer: Dena Westphalen, PharmD