Oppositional Defiant Disorder: Signs, Symptoms, & Treatments
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Steiner, H., & Remsing, L. (2007). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with oppositional defiant Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(1), 126–141. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000246060.62706.af
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. (2013). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association, 2013.
Riley, M., Ahmed, S., Locke, A. (2016). Common questions about oppositional defiant disorder. American Family Physician, 93(7), 586-591.
Matthys, W., Vanderschuren, L. J., & Schutter, D. J. (2013). The neurobiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: altered functioning in three mental domains. Development and psychopathology, 25(1), 193–207. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579412000272
Tuvblad, C., et al. (2009). A common genetic factor explains the covariation among ADHD ODD and CD symptoms in 9-10 year old boys and girls. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 37(2), 153–167. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-008-9278-9
Steiner, H., Remsing, L. (2007). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with oppositional defiant disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(1), 126-141.
Blader, J.C., et al. (2010). Stimulant-response and stimulant-refractory aggressive behavior among children with ADHD. Pediatrics, 126(4), 796-806.
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Author: No Change
Reviewer: No Change
Primary Changes: Edited for readability and clarity. Reviewed and added relevant resources. Revised “What Is Oppositional Defiant Disorder,” “What Causes ODD,” “Treatment of Oppositional Defiant Disorder,” and “Tips for Parenting a Child With Oppositional Defiant Disorder.” Added “Complications of ODD,” “Obtaining an ODD Diagnosis,” and “When to Seek Help for a Child With ODD.” New content written by Alexa Donnelly, LCSW and reviewed by Heidi Moawad, MD.
Author: Matt Edelstein, PsyD, BCBA-D
Reviewer: Kristen Fuller, MD