Parental Abuse: Definition, Examples & How to Heal
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Ibabe I. (2019). Adolescent-to-Parent Violence and Family Environment: The Perceptions of Same Reality?. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(12), 2215. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122215
PAC-UK. (2021). Child to Parent Violence Services. Retrieved from https://www.pac-uk.org/our-services/cpv/
O’Hara, K. L., et al. (2017). Adolescent-to-Parent Violence: Translating Research into Effective Practice. Adolescent Research Review, 2(3), 181–198. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40894-016-0051-y
Walsh, J. A., & Krienert, J. L. (2009). A Decade of Child-Initiated Family Violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24(9), 1450–1477. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260508323661
Parent Abuse. (2021). Envision Counseling and Support Center. Retrieved from https://www.envisioncounsellingcentre.com/innerpage/resources/parent-abuse/
Bobic, Natasha. (2021) Adolescent Violence Towards Parents. Retrieved from https://www.adfvc.unsw.edu.au/PDF%20files/adolescent_violence.pdf
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Author: No Change
Reviewer: No Change
Primary Changes: Updated for readability and clarity. Reviewed and added relevant resources.
Author: Iris Waichler, LCSW
Reviewer: Kristen Fuller, MD