Body Dysmorphia: Signs, Symptoms, & Treatments
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American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Publisher.
Bjornsson, A, Didie, E, & Phillips, K. (20 Feb 2019). Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20623926/
Dyl, J., Kittler, J., Phillips, K. A., & Hunt, J. I. (2006). Body dysmorphic disorder and other clinically significant body image concerns in adolescent psychiatric inpatients: prevalence and clinical characteristics. Child psychiatry and human development, 36(4), 369–382. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-006-0008-7
Feusner, J., Phillips, K.A., (2020). Medication Treatment for body dysmorphic disorder: FAQ. International OCD Foundation. https://bdd.iocdf.org/expert-opinions/medication-faq/
Mufaddel A, Osman O, Almugaddam F, Jafferany M. A review of body dysmorphic disorder and its presentation in different clinical settings. Prim Care Companion CNS Disorders. 2013;15(4),
National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders. (2020). Body Dysmorphic Disorder.
Phillips, K.A. (2009). Understanding Body Dysmorphic Disorder: An Essential Guide. New York: Oxford.
Phillips, K.A., (2005). The Broken Mirror: Understanding & Treating Body Dysmorphic Disorder, (Rev. ed.). New York: Oxford.
Phillips, K., Hart, A., & Niemiec, M. (2017-06). Comorbidity and Personality in Body Dysmorphic Disorder. In Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Advances in Research and Clinical Practice. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from https://oxfordmedicine.com/view/10.1093/med/9780190254131.001.0001/med-9780190254131-chapter-11
Phillips, K. A., Stein, D.J. (Jun 2018). Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Merk Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/psychiatric-disorders/obsessive-compulsive-and-related-disorders/body-dysmorphic-disorder/
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Primary Changes: Updated for readability and clarity. Reviewed and added relevant resources.
Author: Kerry Heath, LPC-S, NCC, CEDS-S
Reviewer: Dena Westphalen, PharmD