Treatment Resistant Depression: Signs, Symptoms, & Treatment Options
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Tundo A, de Filippis R, Proietti L. Pharmacologic approaches to treatment resistant depression: Evidences and personal experience. World J Psychiatry. 2015;5(3):330-41. doi:10.5498/wjp.v5.i3.330. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4582308/
Fabbri C, Corponi F, Souery D, et al. The genetics of treatment-resistant depression: A critical review and future perspectives. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2019;22(2):93-104. doi:10.1093/ijnp/pyy024 Retrieved from: https://academic.oup.com/ijnp/article/22/2/93/4980962
Pan LA, Martin P, Zimmer T, et al. Neurometabolic disorders: Potentially treatable abnormalities in patients with treatment-refractory depression and suicidal behavior. Am J Psychiatry. 2017;174(1):42-50. Retrieved from: https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.15111500
Mayo Clinic: Treatment-resistant depression. Retrieved from:
Psycom.net: Signs and Symptoms of treatment resistant depression. Retrieved from:
WebMD: Treatment-Resistant Depression. Retrieved from:
NIH: New Hope for Treatment Resistant Depression: Guessing right on ketamine.
Living with Bipolar Disorder: How to cope with bipolar disorder. Retrieved from:
NIH: Prevalence of major depressive disorder among adults. Retrieved from:
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Author: No Change
Reviewer: No Change
Primary Changes: Updated for readability and clarity. Reviewed and added relevant resources. Added “What Is Depression?” and “How to Know You Have Treatment Resistant Depression”. New material written by Silvi Saxena, MBA, MSW, LSW, CCTP, OSW-C and reviewed by Kristen Fuller, MD.
Author: Dianne Grande, PhD
Reviewer: Naveed Saleh, MD, MS