15 Signs of a Sociopath: Traits & Characteristics
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Johnson, S. A. (2019). Understanding the violent personality: Antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, & sociopathy explored. Forensic Research & Criminology International Journal, 7(2), 76-88.
Perry, C. (2015). The’dark traits’ of sociopathic leaders: Could they be a threat to universities?. The Australian Universities’ Review, 57(1), 17-25.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596
Pemment, J. (2013). Psychopathy versus sociopathy: Why the Distinction has become crucial. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18(5), 458-461
Stout, M. (2006). The sociopath next door: The ruthless versus the rest of us. Harmony.
Holmes, S. E., Slaughter, J. R., & Kashani, J. (2001). Risk factors in childhood that lead to the development of conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Child psychiatry and human development, 31(3), 183-193.
NHS. (2018). Antisocial Personality Disorder. Retrieved from https://www.nhs.uk/mental-health/conditions/antisocial-personality-disorder/
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Author: No Change
Reviewer: No Change
Primary Changes: Updated for readability and clarity. Reviewed and added relevant resources.
Author: Hailey Shafir, LCMHCS, LPCS, LCAS, CCS
Reviewer: Benjamin Troy, MD