Imposter Syndrome: Signs, Causes, & 11 Ways to Overcome
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Bernard, N. S., Dollinger, S. J., & Ramaniah, N. V. (2002). Applying the big five personality factors to the impostor phenomenon. Journal of personality Assessment, 78(2), 321-333. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327752JPA7802_07
Bravata, D. M., Watts, S. A., Keefer, A. L., Madhusudhan, D. K., Taylor, K. T., Clark, D. M., … & Hagg, H. K. (2019). Prevalence, predictors, and treatment of impostor syndrome: A systematic review. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-019-05364-1
Castro, D. M., Jones, R. A., & Mirsalimi, H. (2004). Parentification and the impostor phenomenon: An empirical investigation. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 32(3), 205-216. https://doi.org/10.1080/01926180490425676
Cowman, S. E., & Ferrari, J. R. (2002). “Am I for real?” Predicting impostor tendencies from self-handicapping and affective components. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 30(2), 119-125. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Joseph-Ferrari/publication/233496947_Am_I_for_real_Predicting_impostor_tendencies_from_self-handicapping_and_affective_components/links/5563a1ce08ae9963a11ef29d/Am-I-for-real-Predicting-impostor-tendencies-from-self-handicapping-and-affective-components.pdf
Clance, P. R., & Imes, S. A. (1978). The impostor phenomenon in high achieving women: Dynamics and therapeutic intervention. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 15(3), 241-247. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0086006
Gibson‐Beverly, G., & Schwartz, J. P. (2008). Attachment, entitlement, and the impostor phenomenon in female graduate students. Journal of College Counseling, 11(2), 119-132. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1882.2008.tb00029.x
Sakulku, J. (2011). The impostor phenomenon. The Journal of Behavioral Science, 6(1), 75-97. https://doi.org/10.14456/ijbs.2011.6
Young, V. (2011) The Secret Thoughts of Successful Women: Why Capable People Suffer from the Impostor Syndrome and How to Thrive in Spite of It. New York: The Crown Publishing Group
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Author: No Change
Reviewer: No Change
Primary Changes: Updated for readability and clarity. Reviewed and added relevant resources. Added “Do I Have Imposter Syndrome?” and “Imposter Syndrome Vs. Discrimination”. Revised “How to Overcome Imposter Syndrome”. New material written by Silvi Saxena, MBA, MSW, LSW, CCTP, OSW-C and reviewed by Kristen Fuller, MD.
Author: Hailey Shafir, LCMHCS, LPCS, LCAS, CCS
Reviewer: Naveed Saleh, MD, MS