Shame: Definition, Examples, Causes, & How to Cope
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Andrews, B., & Hunter, E. (1997). Shame, early abuse, and course of depression in a clinical sample: A preliminary study. Cognition & Emotion, 11(4), 373-381.
Tangney, J. P. (1999). The self-conscious emotions: Shame, guilt, embarrassment and pride. In T. Dalgleish & M. J. Power (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 541–568). John Wiley & Sons Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/0470013494.ch26
Babcock, M. K., & Sabini, J. (1990). On differentiating embarrassment from shame. European Journal of Social Psychology, 20(2), 151–169. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420200206
Dolezal, L. (2022). The Horizons of Chronic Shame. Human Studies, 45(4), 739–759. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10746-022-09645-3
Kammerer, A. (2019). The Scientific Underpinnings and Impacts of Shame. Behavior & Society. Retrieved from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-scientific-underpinnings-and-impacts-of-shame/
Miceli, M., & Castelfranchi, C. (2018). Reconsidering the Differences Between Shame and Guilt. Europe’s journal of psychology, 14(3), 710–733. https://doi.org/10.5964/ejop.v14i3.1564
Stuewig, J., & McCloskey, L. A. (2005). The relation of child maltreatment to shame and guilt among adolescents: psychological routes to depression and delinquency. Child maltreatment, 10(4), 324–336. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559505279308
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Author: No Change
Reviewer: No Change
Primary Changes: Edited for readability and clarity. Reviewed and added relevant resources. Revised “What Is Shame,” “Types of Shame.” “What Causes Shame,” “Effects of Shame on Mental & Physical Health,” and “Tips for Coping With Shame.” New material written by Maggie Holland MA, MHP, LMHC and reviewed by Heidi Moawad, MD.
Author: Hailey Shafir, LCMHCS, LPCS, LCAS, CCS
Reviewer: Lynn Byars, MD