Specific Phobias: Signs, Symptoms, & Treatments
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Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Department of Psychiatry. Specific phobias. Retrieved from: https://www.med.upenn.edu/ctsa/phobias_symptoms.html
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596
Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Prevention of Mental Disorders; Mrazek PJ, Haggerty RJ, editors. Reducing Risks for Mental Disorders: Frontiers for Preventive Intervention Research. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1994. 6, Risk and Protective Factors for the Onset of Mental Disorders. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK236306/
Hettema, J., M., et al. 2005. The Structure of Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Anxiety Disorders in men and Women. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 62 (2), 182-189.
Blanco, C., Rubio, J., Wall, M., Wang, S., Jiu, C. J., & Kendler, K. S. (2014). Risk factors for anxiety disorders: common and specific effects in a national sample. Depression and anxiety, 31(9), 756–764. doi:10.1002/da.22247
Eaton, W. E., Bienvenue, O. J., & Miloyan, B. 2018. Specific Phobias. The Lancet Psychiatry, 5 (8), 678-686.
National Institute of Mental Health. Anxiety Disorders. (July 2018). Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/index.shtml
Ollendick, T. H., Neville, J. K., & Muris, P., 2002. Fears and Phobias in Children: Phenomenology, Epidemiology, and Aetiology. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 7 (3), 98-106.
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Author: No Change
Reviewer: No Change
Primary Changes: Updated for readability and clarity. Reviewed and added relevant resources. Added “Specific Phobia Examples”, “Are Phobias Genetic?”, “Complications of Living With a Phobia”, “Can Phobias Be Prevented?”, and “How Are Specific Phobias Diagnosed?”. New material written by Silvi Saxena, MBA, MSW, LSW, CCTP, OSW-C and reviewed by Kristen Fuller, MD.
Author: No Change
Reviewer: Pat F Bass, III, MD
Primary Changes: Updated for Readability; Revised “Treatment of Specific Phobias”; Added “What Are Specific Phobias?” “Specific Phobias vs. Normal Fear Responses” and “Specific Phobias & Panic Attacks”.
Author: Hailey Shafir, LCMHCS, LPCS, LCAS, CCS
Reviewer: Dena Westphalen, Pharm. D.