Narcissistic Abuse: Signs, Effects, & Treatments
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American Psychiatric Association. (2013). The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
Howard V. (2019). Recognising narcissistic abuse and the implications for mental health practice. DOI: 10.1080/01612840.2019.1590485
Jack C. (2020). The day you discover you’re a victim of narcissistic abuse.
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Originally Published: December 4, 2020
Original Author: Nakpangi Thomas, PhD, LPC, TITC-CT
Original Reviewer: Dena Westphalen, PharmD
Updated: May 19, 2022
Author: No Change
Reviewer: No Change
Primary Changes: Updated for readability and clarity. Reviewed and added relevant resources. Added “The Cycle of Narcissistic Abuse.” New material written by Silvi Saxena, MBA, MSW, LSW, CCTP, OSW-C and reviewed by Dena Westphalen, PharmD.